The networks, teams, and groups that are part of have been invited because of their focus on one or more of the shifts in this list.  Together, they represent a comprehensive approach to transformation.


20th Century

21st Century


Mainly individual some collaboration

Mainly collaborative some individual


Mainly summative with some formative

Formative with summative


Teacher centric

Student centric

Learning programs

Group based some extension or remedial

Individual learning programs

Learning outcomes

Assessment focused

Process & Outcomes focused

Learning focus

Predominantly content with some process

Predominantly process with seamlessly embedded content

Teaching approach

Just in case learning

Just in time learning

Learning relevance

Low relevance to the learner Often low currency Can lack context for the learner

Relevant to learner. Current and topical. High contextual value for learner (me, group, community, global significance)

Daggettʼs application model

Low, content often relevant to only to current unit of learning or course

Can be applied across several areas of learning. Applicable to real life situations

Thinking Skills

Predominantly lower order. Bloomʼs Digital Taxonomy. Remember, understand & apply. Solo Taxonomy. Unistructural & Multistructural

Predominantly higher order. Analysis, evaluation & creativity. Relational & extended abstract

Technology use

Literacy (learning about technology) Augmentative (learning with technology)

Transformative (learning through technology)

Teaching methodologies

Stand and Deliver.

Project and problem based learning.

Student involvement in learning

Students given content & told processes

Students construct content & develop and evaluate processes



Multiple sources - self, peer & teacher/mentor

Student self management

Based on rules. Limited or no student input into framework

Based on moral and ethical approach. Students, staff & community partnership in development

Student promotion

Academic promotion with single level learning

Social Promotion with multileveling & extensive learner support

Gifted and talented

Focus on acceleration

Focus on extension and acceleration

Learning styles

Predominantly Read/Write & Auditory

Broad use of multiple services dealing with write me an essay requests, learning styles (Visual, auditory, kinesthetic & read/write) Application of multiple intelligences

Physical Exercise

Reduction in Physical education classes. Often supportive of single sporting code

Daily exercise and frequent use of movement within classes. Supportive of individual and team sports

Reporting systems

Semester and Term based paper reports. A-E grade systemUse of comment banks. Comments often summative. Limited word count available for comments

Digital format with regular timely update. Criterion based with clear descriptors.  Focused & relevant comments with formative aspect

Timing of learning

Traditional school timing. Emphasis on 9-3 learning with homework

School times flexible and based on neurological research. Anywhere anytime learning facilitated by transformative technology use

School design

Classrooms & laboratory
Single purpose spaces

Learning commons
Flexible learning spaces
Casual learning spaces